novavaxSince the start of the COVID-19 pandemic, the response from public health agencies, regulators, researchers, and industry has been dominated by the development of vaccines. As of October 14, McGill University’s McGill COVID19 Vaccine Tracker listed 153 vaccines in clinical development, of which 23 had been approved or authorized for emergency use in at least one country.

In the United States, the FDA has approved one COVID-19 vaccine (Pfizer/BioNTech’s Comirnaty) and authorized for emergency use two others (Moderna’s Moderna COVID-19 Vaccine and Johnson & Johnson’s Janssen COVID-19 Vaccine). Beyond the United States, most approvals and authorizations have been granted to those vaccines and others developed by AstraZeneca/University of Oxford (122 countries), Sinopharm (65), Sinovac Biotech (40), Russia’s Gamaleya Research Institute (16), and CanSino Biologics (9).