DrugDiscoAnalysis of international public-sector contributions to Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved drugs and vaccines allows for a more thorough examination of the global biomedical innovation ecosystem by institution of origin. Using new and existing methods, we have identified 364 FDA-approved drugs and vaccines approved from 1973 to 2016 discovered in whole or in part by Public Sector Research Institutions (PSRIs) worldwide. We identified product-specific intellectual property contributions to FDA-approved small molecule and biologic drugs and vaccines from the FDA Orange Book, our peer network, published studies, and three new sources: reports of medical product manufacturers’ payments to physicians and teaching hospitals under The Sunshine Act of 2010, a paper by Kneller and 64 royalty monetization transactions by academic institutions and/or their faculty that one of us (AS) maintains. We include a total of 293 drugs discovered either wholly by a US PSRI or jointly by a U.S. and a non-U.S. PSRI. 119 FDA-approved drugs and vaccines were discovered by PSRIs outside the U.S. Of these, 71 were solely discovered outside the US, while 48 also involved intellectual property contributions by US PSRIs. In the context of the global public sector landscape, the US dominates drug discovery, accounting for two-thirds of these drugs and many of the important, innovative vaccines introduced over the past 30 years. Contributions by Canada, UK, Germany, Belgium, Japan, and others each amount to 5.4% or less of the total.

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